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Defying the Crowd [PDF]

by Robert J. Sternberg
My notes and quotes:

Book written for the general public describing research that has been done on creativity as well as what factors are necessary for it to occur.Begins with describing factors that determine creative ability and expression: intelligence, knowledge, motivation, environment, personality, and thinking styles.States that defining creativity is very difficult because it is so subjective; in other words, creativity is a product of its environment.

Authors also believe that creativity is greatly undervalued in our society, despite the general statements of teachers, businesses, etc.They go into how standardized testing is overvalued and only measures a very specific kind of intelligence; in other words, they do not measure creativity in any way.They then go into many actual tests that exist to test creativity with many examples in the book.

They begin to describe creativity through an investment metaphor: buy low and sell high.When people are creative they are essentially buying an idea low when they are the only ones who believe in it and eventually selling it high when it finally catches on.Consequently, there is much risk involved with being creative.Authors go into what is necessary in order to buy low and sell high and how it takes more than just creative ideas, but also the ability to follow through on them with marketing, perseverance, etc.They then go into the role of intelligence in creativity, such as the ability to redefine a problem in different terms.This can also be described as how easy it is for a person to change conventions (e.g. they are told 2+2=3).

Then goes into how knowledge of a subject is necessary in order to be creative, but how moderate amount of knowledge is best because too much knowledge inhibits creative thinking.They go into the different thinking styles and how they relate to creativity (e.g. legislative, executive, & judicial).

They go in depth on how all the types and combinations of mental self government affect creativity.They then describe the role of personality in creativity.Specifically, characteristics such as perseverance, sensible risk taking, willingness to grow, tolerance of ambiguity, openness to experiences, and belief in yourself and in your convictions.

Lastly, they describe the necessary motivations required to be creative.Although intrinsic motivation is desirable, it is not always necessary, and much creative work has been done under the influence of both internal and external influences.The environment can influence creativity as well, with some people flourishing best under a supportive environment, while others seem to be most creative in the face of adversity and obstacles.

The overall message of the book is that creativity is a multifaceted construct that requires a number of factors in order to flourish.
[PDF] Defying the Crowd download

Book info

eBook formatPaperback, (torrent)En
PublisherFree Press
File size3.5 Mb
Release date 01.01.2002
Pages count336
Book rating4.62 (13 votes)
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1 comment

1. Persia Emily | 09.05.2015 17:33

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Thank you! Great book!

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